Rutherford B. Hayes,
nineteenth president of the United States, was the fifth child born to
Rutherford and Sophia Birchard Hayes. He was born October 4, 1822, at
Delaware, Ohio, about two months after the death of his father. His
parents had come to Ohio in 1817 from Dummerston, Vermont.
Young Rutherford and sister Fanny Arabella were raised by their
mother and her younger bachelor brother Sardis Birchard. He was a
successful businessman in Lower Sandusky (later Fremont), Ohio. Hayes
attended school in Delaware and Norwalk, Ohio, and Middletown,
Connecticut. In 1842, Hayes graduated from Kenyon College, Gambier,
Ohio, valedictorian of his class. After a year of study in a Columbus
law office, he entered Harvard Law School and received his degree in
1845. He began his law practice in Lower Sandusky. Not finding many
opportunities there, he left in 1849 for Cincinnati, where he became a
successful lawyer. His opposition to slavery drew him into the
In 1852, Rutherford married Lucy Ware Webb of Chillicothe. She was
the youngest daughter of Dr. James and Maria Cook Webb and a graduate
of Cincinnati's Wesleyan Women's College. She was the first wife of a
president to graduate from college. They became the parents of eight
the Civil War began, Hayes offered his services to the state of Ohio.
Governor William Dennison appointed him to the rank of major in the
23rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He saw much active service, rising to the
rank of major general. He was severely wounded on September 14, 1862,
at the Battle of South Mountain. In 1864, while still in the army, he
was elected to Congress (despite his refusal to campaign). Hayes did
not take his seat until the Union had won the war. He was reelected in
1866. The following year Ohio voters elected him governor. He retired
at the close of his second term in 1872, and moved to Fremont in May
1873. After winning a third term in 1875, the Republican Party chose
Hayes as its presidential candidate. He won the 1876 election only
after the creation of a special commission to decide disputed electoral
votes. Because of the tension surrounding his election, Hayes secretly
took the oath of office on Saturday, March 3, 1877, in the Red Room of
the White House.
President Hayes worked to solve the country's problems. By 1877 it
was clear that the nation's voters were no longer willing to use the
army to protect the civil rights of the freedmen. Because a hostile
Congress refused to provide adequate funds, Hayes reassigned the few
remaining troops guarding two Southern statehouses. Before doing so,
however, he extracted promises from southern leaders that they would
protect southern African Americans in their political, economic, and
civil rights. He hoped his actions would heal the wounds left by the
Civil War. His sound money policies helped make business and industry
stronger. He initiated civil service reform, aimed at ending patronage,
and appointed men with sound qualifications to government positions. He
also signed a bill that, for the first time, allowed women attorneys to
appear before the U.S. Supreme Court.
The President continued to be concerned with minorities, the poor, and immigrants. He
believed that education and manual training would help all people achieve better lives.
Hayes' honesty and fairness renewed respect for the presidential
office. Honoring his commitment not to accept a second term, Hayes
retired to his beautiful home, Spiegel Grove, in Fremont, Ohio. Here,
Hayes continued to give of his time helping veterans to receive their
pensions, improving conditions in prisons, and promoting universal
education. He died at Spiegel Grove January 17, 1893, at the age of
Ten facts about Rutherford B. Hayes from the archives of the Hayes Presidential Center Library...
- Hayes was the first president to take the oath of office in the White House.
- Hayes was the only president whose election was decided by a congressional commission.
- Hayes was the first president to travel to the West Coast during his term as president.
- Hayes was the first president to have a telephone in the White House.
- Hayes was the first president to have a typewriter in the White House.
- Though other presidents served in the Civil War, Hayes was the only one to have been wounded - four times!
began the "Easter Egg Roll" for children on the White House Lawn (1878)
- a tradition which still continues on the Monday after Easter.
- Lucy Webb Hayes was the first wife of a president to graduate from college,
- Lucy Webb Hayes was the first wife of a president to be called "First Lady".
- Hayes' best known quotation - "he serves his party best who serves his country best." Inaugural Address, 1877.
Interesting facts and summary were written by Nan Card, curator of manuscripts.